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Yi Li

Associate Professor

College of Computing and Data Science (CCDS)
Nanyang Technological University (NTU)

Address: Block N4-02b-63
50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Phone: +65 6790 4287

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Oracle-Supported Dynamic Exploit Generation for Smart Contracts

Haijun Wang, Ye Liu, Yi Li, Shang-Wei Lin, Cyrille Artho, Lei Ma, and Yang Liu

IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 2022

Abstract: Despite the high stakes involved in smart contracts, they are often developed in an undisciplined manner, leaving the security and reliability of blockchain transactions at risk. In this paper, we introduce ContraMaster—an oracle-supported dynamic exploit generation framework for smart contracts. Existing approaches mutate only single transactions; ContraMaster exceeds these by mutating the transaction sequences. ContraMaster uses data-flow, control-flow, and the dynamic contract state to guide its mutations. It then monitors the executions of target contract programs, and validates the results against a general-purpose semantic test oracle to discover vulnerabilities. Being a dynamic technique, it guarantees that each discovered vulnerability is a violation of the test oracle and is able to generate the attack script to exploit this vulnerability. In contrast to rule-based approaches, ContraMaster has not shown any false positives, and it easily generalizes to unknown types of vulnerabilities (e.g., logic errors). We evaluate ContraMaster on 218 vulnerable smart contracts. The experimental results confirm its practical applicability and advantages over the state-of-the-art techniques, and also reveal three new types of attacks.


  author = {Wang, Haijun and Liu, Ye and Li, Yi and Lin, Shang-Wei and Artho, Cyrille and Ma, Lei and Liu, Yang},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing},
  month = may,
  number = {3},
  pages = {1795--1809},
  title = {Oracle-Supported Dynamic Exploit Generation for Smart Contracts},
  volume = {19},
  year = {2022}
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